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chapter summary; What counts as communication Data?” in the text book ” Merrigan, G. & Huston, C. L. (2009). Communication research methods. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England. 2nd edition.”

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1- You have to write summary of chapter 5″ What counts as communication Data?” in the text book ” Merrigan, G. & Huston, C. L. (2009). Communication research methods. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England. 2nd edition.”
2- This is example on how the summary should look:

Chapter 3: Three Paradigms of Knowing

Overview: This chapter is about the three methodological ways of knowing about communication: discovery, interpretation, and Criticism. The ways of knowing are called paradigms.

Methodological Ways of Knowing

• Knowing by Discovery
o Implies accepting four fundamental assumptions:
• The belief that things or objects exist in reality separate from our perceptions of them
• The belief that this reality is discoverable whether we are talking about the physical world or social interaction
• The belief that knowledge is testable through logical (rational) and empirical (observation) methods
• The belief that rigorous standards for testing observations will result in shared system of evaluating observations and conclusions
o The standards we use for evaluating our observations form the basis of discovering what we know and has precise (ensuring accuracy), systematic (clear procedures), and repetitive (to ensure variable findings) observations as a standard
o Conclusions allow application of processes to generalize (group based on common properties) or discriminate (sort based on differences)

• Knowing by Interpretation
o Accepts four fundamental assumptions
• There is more than one reality that can be known
• The knower’s perceptions and values affect what is seen because the knower cannot be separated from the known
• Since there is more than one reality, there can be multiple, equally legitimate, interpretations
• The process of knowing is one of description (knowing the whole context through broad use of data sources) and not of categorization
o From the interpretation perspective, it is not important to determine which interpretations are more accurate but to reflect the full range of sensible interpretations

• Knowing by Criticism
o Those who seek to know through the process of criticism believe not only in multiple realities but that these realities are culturally and historically situated
o Everything we know is shaped by our social, political, economic, ethnic, gender, sexual orientation, and ability values
o The goal of bringing awareness of the reality that society constructs for each of us is to bring about social change (ex. Maternity leave and the disadvantage for women returning to work)

Philosophical Perspectives of the Three Paradigms

• Discovery Paradigm Perspective
o The first paradigm chronologically
o Rationalism and Empiricism gave process to the three emphases of the discovery paradigm (precision, systematic inquiry, and repetition for verification purposes)
• Rationalism stressed on reliance of mind for discoverable logic of objective reality
• Empiricism emphasized the way to objective reality was through observing and explaining sensory information
o Logical positivism and behaviorism was later developments of empiricism
• Logical positivism believes precision was better served as a goal if related events were identified rather than caused events
• Behaviorism sought to discover causal links between external factors and an individual’s response
o Researchers from the discovery paradigm perspective adopted a post positivism which has five principles
• Falsification as knowledge about what is probable through testable means
• Naturalism as the natural world comprised of both the physical world of objects and the social world of interactions
• Realism as reality existing independently from perceptions of reality
• Transformation models in terms of how direct observations can lead to acceptance of theoretical suppositions that can only be indirectly observed
• Emergent objectivity as shared standards of evaluating observations that can minimize and transcend researcher’s subjective interpretations
o The philosophical perspectives of modernism and structuralism are also focused on a discoverable reality separate in some sense from the knower or perceiver
• Modernism elevated science to the pursuit of a shared and objective truth and belief in progress and of movement towards truth
• Structuralism identified the discoverable reality in the patterns of relationships between objects, events, or people rather than in the truthfulness of the objects themselves

• Interpretive Paradigm Perspective
o Also associated with a number of philosophical perspectives
• Hermeneutics: study of interpretive understanding and meaning
• Emphasized understanding or Verstehen
• Phenomenologists believed that interpretation of experience was only possible by understanding the perspective of the participants engaged in interacting
• Symbolic Interactionism was to understand how people construct and interpret the meaning of their principles
• Constructivism believed that there were multiple realities that are socially constructed
• Naturalism was a professed adherence to studying people in their everyday lives as these are played out in their natural settings
o Typical research studies include ethnographies, historical case studies, biographies, oral histories, dramatism, and narrative analysis

• Critical Paradigm Perspective
o The paradigm has its origins in the philosophies of critical theory, semiotics, late structuralism, post structuralism, post modernism, post colonialism, and deconstruction
• Critical theory was developed as a response to Kant’s rationalism. The purpose is to liberate individuals who have become alienated through oppression in modern society by increasing their social awareness of the ideological structures of power and domination
• Semiotics is sometimes identified as the origin of structuralism. It is the study of signs (in language, cultural rules, unconscious, etc.) and their social significance
• Late structuralism perspective says that the central significance of signs cannot be anything but ideological and are used primarily to convey status apart from any utilitarian function they might serve
• Post Structuralism argues that the search for a foundational structure of language and society should be abandoned
• Post modernism represented a complete restructuring of authority compared to times where the church and government had full power
• Post colonialism includes the idea that the Western countries of the “first world” culturally and racially oppress peoples of the “third world”

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