history outline

history outline

Order Description

an outline about history

Early Colonization of America, 1590-1675
Ancient America and Spanish Colonization to 1590
“Columbus, the Indians, and Human Progress,”
Howard Zinn“Drawing the Color Line,” Howard Zinn

two chapter from <A history of the united stated Volume 1 TO 1877> second edition

Medieval History Chapter 1 Outline
The Roman Peace (Pax Romana 29BCE~180CE)
Octavian Augustus was the emperor  (31BCE~14CE)
He ended the civil war in Rome and promise people that civil war will never be allowed again
The  empire was about the size of the United States today (about 3000miles)
Its population more than 50 million (about 1/6 of United States today)
Although Roma conquer Greece, they combined Greece’s knowledge with their own
Economy and Social Condition
The city of Rome itself was boosted with about 1 million inhabitants.
The other center cities were Alexandria, Antioch, and later, Constantinople
But, most of the cities in Rome had no more than 5000 inhabitants.
Small cities was the major role in the empire
They can govern the countryside around them
They also spread the roman religion, teaching, tax collecting to the countryside.
Wealth was all concentrated in Rome, but not produced in Rome
The empire of Rome was politically depends on the small cities and economically depending on the countryside.
The principal crops of the Rome Empire were grain, grapes, and olives- The Mediterranean triad
Based on this ingredients, the basic diet for most of the Roman are bread and wine
In Italy peninsula, sheep- and cattle raising had replaced grain production
Egypt and North Africa was the main grain producing site
Although Rome was at peace, the Pax Romana was not an golden age for everyone
In most of the provinces of Rome
They are drastically underpoliced and undergoverned
At the border of Rome
The barbarians was hammering repeatedly at the frontiers
Although everyone was benefits from the peace of Rome, but the only one who were actually enjoying the peace were the people in the upper class
Anarchy and Recovery
Twenty-odd emperors reigned during the calamitous half-century between 235 and 285, (all but one died by murder, in combat or captivity)
With military problems and political anarchy came social and economic breakdown, plagues, famines, and floods were more troubling than before
Diocletian (reign 284CE~305CE)
Began the Tetrachy in 293CE
Compromised with Barbarians
Farther economic problems but the empire stabilized
Constantine (reign 306CE~337CE)
Began the move to the west
324CE to 330Ce founded Constantinople, in every way except religion.(it was an exact duplicate of Rome)
Was tremendously consequential for Western Empire
Diocletian and Constantine
Threw back barbarian and Persian armies
Fixing wages and prices
Reorganized imperial government
Began to divided Rome
The new religious blood
Christianity was initially only one of many mystery religions in the empire
Mystery religion
Promised mystical union between worshipers and divine beings
Presented compelling alternatives to traditional Roman veneration of the deities of hearth and household, clan and city
Roman usually worship
Cult of goddess Isis from Egypt
Cult of the savior Mithras from Persia
Christianity from Palestine
Great Mother from Phrygian
Christianity was different from other religions in two ways
Its founder and savior is an actual historical person
The Christian God was not merely the best of many deities but one, the God of Jews
Gnostics (from “gnosis”, the revealed “knowledge” that led to salvation) taught that Christ was not truly human but only a divine phantom
Arians, maintained that Christ was not fully divine, not an equal to God the father
Monophysites argued that Christ’s divine nature predominated over his humanity
These three doctrine eventually produce orthodoxy, an agreed-upon theology from which other interpretations were unorthodox or even heretical
The early church
St. Paul (5BCE~67CE)
He taught that Christians should not be bound by the strict Jewish dietary laws or the requirement of circumcision
The new faith should be opened to people everywhere who would accept Jesus as God and Savior
At the early time
Christians engaged regularly in a holy meal of bread and wine that came to be called the Eucharist(Greek for thanksgiving)
This ritual was viewed as a sacrament, a channel of divine grace through which the recipient was infused with the spirit of Christ
Saints or the Holy people were the one that run the ritual
They are honored in an informal process of recognition
They were distinguished by their exceptional self-denial
Hagiography: saints’ lives
Most of the early communities met in homes.
By the fourth and fifth centuries, purpose-build church grew common
St Peter was the first pope
Christianity and the Empire
299CE-301CE Emperor Diocletian
Launched the great persecution ever against Christian
311CE edict of toleration issued by Emperor Galerius
312CE-337CE Reign of Constantine the great
Converted to Christianity and sponsored it over his reign
Sometimes after the Battle of Milvian Bridge, where according to the stories, he had a vision which caused him to put a Christian sign on his man’s shield or saw a flaming cross in the sky
Underscored with “in the signed, Conquer”
313CE-314CE church councils summoned by Constantine ruled against Donatist, who were against those who abandoned Christianity under Diocletian’s rule
315CE Council of Nicea decide trinity
Christianity and Judaism
Christianity had quickly developed into an autonomous religion under the influence of St. Paul
Jews were not allowed into Jerusalem after two failure revolt in 70 and 135 CE
During the time, Christianity and Judaism were going along with each other.
But the Christianity has the power of the state by that time and Judaism was allowed by the emperors, so both of the religions are still spreading.
The Latin doctors
Founded a monastery and convert in Bethlehem
Began the tradition of monastic scribalism and preserved Latin writing
Jerome was the one that translated the bile into the Latin version called the Vulgate
Augustine of Hippo (354-430CE) foremost Christian Philosopher of Roman antiquity
Fused Christian doctrine with Greek Thought
Wrote the city of God, a Christian theory of history
Argued that history was a process moving forward in God’s plan instead of a living cycle
Emphasized individual salvation rather than tribal so the Fall of Rome was not determinative of salvation
Humanity is divided into City of God and the City of Earth
His view of priesthood shaped Roman Catholic Christianity until today
His views on predestination and divine grace were revived by the Protestant Reformation and become cornerstones of Protestant doctrines until today

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