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Independent-Samples t Test with SPSS

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Week 8

Required Resources
This page contains the Learning Resources for this week. Be sure to scroll down the page to see all of this week’s assigned Learning Resources. To access select media resources, please select the links below.

• Course Text: Research Methods in the Social Sciences

o Chapter 19, “Inferences”

Chapter 19 describes the strategy and procedure for hypothesis testing, including sampling distribution, Type I and Type II errors, and level of significance. The chapter concludes by examining how to evaluate relationships between two variables through difference between means, Pearson’s r, and the chi-square test. This chapter is used in this week’s Application

o Appendix F, “Distribution of t”

Appendix F is a table of the distribution of t for one-tailed and two-tailed tests. This table will be useful in the Application.
• Course Text: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

o Chapter 5, “Displaying Results”

Chapter 5 presents the purposes of displaying data and provides guidance on designing and preparing data displays to communicate information effectively. The information presented in this chapter is a good resource as you craft your Application and Final Project.
• Course Text: Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and Understanding Data

o Lesson 22, “One-Sample t Test”
o Lesson 23, “Paired-Samples t Test”
o Lesson 24, “Independent-Samples t Test”

Lessons 22, 23, and 24 explain how to use SPSS to calculate one-sample, paired-samples, and independent-samples t-tests. You are encouraged to engage in the sample activities in the lessons using the SPSS files listed below; however, you are not required to complete the exercises at the end of each lesson. These lessons will be used in this week’s Application.

Data Sets and SPSS Files
• Select one of the data sets from the GSS data disk that came with the course text Research Methods in the Social Sciences. You will use this data set for this week’s Application.
• Sample data files to accompany the course text Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and Understanding Data
https://www.pearsonhighered.com/greensalkindSPSS/.

o Lesson 22 Data File 1
o Lesson 23 Data File 1
o Lesson 24 Data File 1

These are the files you need to complete the lesson activities. These activities are encouraged but not required for the Application.
• Web Site: StatSoft Electronic Textbook: Power Analysis
https://www.statsoft.com/textbook/power-analysis/

This electronic textbook begins with an overview of elementary concepts and continues with a more in-depth exploration of specific areas of statistics. A glossary of statistical terms and a list of references for further study are included. This resource is used in the Application.
• Media:

o “Introduction to Hypothesis Testing” featuring Jennifer Ann Morrow (12:39)

In this program, Dr. Jennifer Ann Morrow defines hypothesis testing and reviews the steps involved in conducting hypothesis tests using formulas and SPSS. This video is a useful resource for the Application. To view this video program, use the media player located at the top of this page.
o “The t Statistic” featuring Jennifer Ann Morrow (19:48)

In this program, Dr. Jennifer Ann Morrow defines the t statistic and discusses its use in testing hypotheses. She demonstrates how to calculate the t statistic using a formula and how to run a one-sample t test in SPSS. This video is a useful resource for the Application. To view this video program, use the media player located at the top of this page.
o “The t Test for Independent Samples” featuring Jennifer Ann Morrow (25:20)

In this program, Dr. Jennifer Ann Morrow first defines the t test for independent samples and then provides example research problems this test can address. To conclude, Dr. Morrow demonstrates how to conduct a t test for independent samples using a formula and in SPSS. This video is a useful resource for the Application. To view this video program, use the media player located at the top of this page.
o Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2009n). The t test for related samples. Baltimore: Author.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 23 minutes.

In this program, Dr. Jennifer Ann Morrow defines the t test for related samples, demonstrates its calculation, and explains appropriate situations for its use. This video is a useful resource for the Application.
Accessible player
o “Estimation” featuring Jennifer Ann Morrow (25:19)

In this program, Dr. Jennifer Ann Morrow defines estimation and provides examples of its appropriate research use. She also demonstrates three statistical tests that estimate population parameters. This video is a useful resource for the Application. To view this video program, use the media player located at the top of this page.
• Software: SPSS

Research Toolkit
Readings
• Course Text: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

o Chapter 3, “Writing Clearly and Concisely”
o Chapter 4, “The Mechanics of Style”
o Chapter 6, “Crediting Sources”
o Chapter 7, “Reference Examples”
Web Sites
• Web Site: SPSS Student Resource Center
https://www-01.ibm.com/software/analytics/spss/academic/solutions/students.html

The student section of the SPSS Academic Resource Center is your one-stop shop for all your statistics and data-mining needs, including tutorials, reading lists, and training courses.
• Web Site: SPSS Technical Support
https://www.spss.ie/support/index.html

The SPSS student support site provides a knowledge base and assistance from SPSS Technical Support staff.
• Web Site: Web Center for Social Research Methods
https://www.socialresearchmethods.net

This Web site is for people involved in applied social research and evaluation. You’ll find lots of resources and links to other locations on the Web that deal in applied social research methods.
• Web Site: Choosing the Correct Statistical Test in SAS, Stata and SPSS
https://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/mult_pkg/whatstat/default.htm

UCLA’s Academic Technology Services statistics table shows general guidelines for choosing a statistical analysis, and links showing how to do such tests using SAS, Stata, and SPSS.

Paper Details:

Independent-Samples t Test with SPSS
In your research, you may find that you must compare the means of two samples related to one particular variable. For example, you may have population samples from two ethnic groups that you wish to compare against income level. In these cases, you will need to use an independent-samples t test. This Application Assignment gives you an opportunity to try this t test and consider its application to your own research topic.
To prepare for this Application:
• Review Chapter 19 and Appendix F in the course text, Research Methods in the Social Sciences.
• Review the video programs for this week, located in the Learning Resources.

• Review the Web site for StatSoft Electronic Textbook: Power Analysis, located in the Learning Resources.

• Review Lessons 22, 23, and 24 in the course text Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and Understanding Data.

• Access the gss04student_corrected dataset in the Course Information area of the classroom to use for this Application

The assignment:
• Craft up to a one page double- spaced write up of the statistical results (include any additional pages needed for any APA tables or graphs and the SPSS syntax and output) in which you do the following:


o State the statistical assumptions for this test.

o Using the data set you have selected, select independent and dependent variables.

o Develop the null and the alternative hypothesis.

o Use the SPSS to calculate an independent-samples t test.

o Report on the p value and the confidence interval.

o Interpret the confidence interval.

o Decide whether to reject or retain the null hypothesis.

o Generate syntax and output files in SPSS. You will need to copy and paste these into your Application document.

o Based on your SPSS analysis, report the results using correct APA format. Your report should include the following:

o
• SPSS syntax and output files

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