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Linux System Administration

1) Shells

Actions for Shells

Linux shells are used to enter commands to perform functions in your Linux distribution.  Describe the shells which are available.  Which one would be your preference? Why?

2) Redirections

Actions for Redirections

Linux distributions have three basic forms of Input/Output (standard input, standard output, and standard error) redirections which will need to understand how to use each one.
•    State the purpose of each of three I/O forms including which file descriptor is used for each one
•    Provide your own redirection command syntax example as well as description what your command syntax will do
(optional-challenging) How would command syntax appear if you want redirect the cat command standard ouput and standard error to the same file?  This would be useful if you want to view results of the cat command in a file containing both regular output and any error(s) which might appear (ex. syntax error).

3) File-Viewing Commands

Actions for File-Viewing Commands

Three file-viewing commands (head, tail, and less) are used to display a portion of a file.  These are especially useful when you have a very large text file you want to view and you want to narrow you display of it.
Provide me one or more command syntax examples using each of the three file-viewing commands. You must provide me using at least one command option (ex. with head command you can specify the number of lines to display using “-n num” option).

4) bash

Actions for bash

What are some reasons why bash is considered a defacto standard shell on Linux distributions?

5) inittab File

Actions for inittab File

/etc/inittab file is one of the most important files on a Linux (and UNIX) operating system.  It is read when the Linux /sbin/init program starts your system.   The /etc/inittab file lists what programs to start depending on the run level.
Provide a sample syntax (id:runlevels:action:process) of an /etc/inittab entry as follows:
id = identify your entry
runlevels = specify that the process will run at run levels 3 and 5
Action = specify to init program how to treat the program
Process = provide your own name including if there is any input or output redirection

6) Localization and Internationalization

Actions for Localization and Internationalization

Since Linux is an international operating system you can configure it to support a specific region.  Discuss how you can configure its character set, keyboard layout, and date/time display formats for a specific region (or country) of your choice.

7) Default User Accounts

Actions for Default User Accounts

What default user accounts are created during installation?  What are they for?  What should you do with them?  Explain in detail.

8) Installation Sources

Actions for Installation Sources

What type of installation sources are available for Linux?  What are the differences?  Give some advantages and disadvantages of each of them.

9) runlevel

Actions for runlevel

How many runlevel are there?  Explain each one and when would you use each of them.

10) Package Dependencies and Conflicts

Actions for Package Dependencies and Conflicts

Linux software packages have dependencies and conflicts that can occur for numerous reasons.  Discuss at least 3 ways they can occur

11) RPM vs Debian

Actions for RPM vs Debian

Compare Red Hat Package Manager vs Debian package Manager.  How are they similar and how are the different

12) Modifying User Accounts

Actions for Modifying User Accounts

The usermod command is used to change a Linux user account settings.  There are a few of parmeters (ex. “-l” to change the user name) require considerations before using with the usermod command.   Discuss a specific parameter you would used with the usermod and what you need to consider either before or after applying your usermod. Also, provide an example of your usermod command including the parameter.

13) useradd vs. adduser

Actions for useradd vs. adduser

The useradd utility is used to create user account but on some Linux distributions we also have adduser script to create users as well.  Explain the differences between these two utilities to create user accounts on Linux distributions.   Which one would you use ?

14) Groups

Actions for Groups

When creating user account using useradd how is the default group determined?  Is there a default group users are added automatically unless specified in the useradd command ?

15) Partitioning a Disk

Actions for Partitioning a Disk

Discuss the steps required (including exact commands) to partition a disk using the fdisk utility.

16) Mounting a File System

Actions for Mounting a File System

Provide the steps required to create and then mount a filesystem

17) Different Disk Types

Actions for Different Disk Types

What type of disk does each of the following represents ?

18) USB Basics

Actions for USB Basics

Discuss USB capabilities you can configure in your Linux distribution

19) File System Health

Actions for File System Health

What are some of the tools you can use to tune or correct a Linux filesystem?

20) Coldplug vs. Hotplug Devices

Actions for Coldplug vs. Hotplug Devices

Explain the differences between coldplug verses Hotplug devices.  Provide examples of coldplug devices as well as a hotplug device.

21) /proc directory

Actions for /proc directory

/proc directory is a virtual filesystems that provides information about hardware, running processes, etc..   Lists at least three files located in /proc that you can reference to determine the hardware resources for devices installed on your Linux distribution.

22) ps Command

Actions for ps Command

ps command is use to list processs running on your Linux system.   Provide five examples using the ps command

23) runlevel Services

Actions for runlevel Services

when you move from one run level to the next there are certain methods you can use to make that happen.   Explain how /etc/inittab file and specific commands are used to manage runlevel services.

24) Aliases and Environment Variables

Actions for Aliases and Environment Variables

Explain the function of environment variables.
What is the purpose of shell aliases? Provide an example of a alias you may use.

25) syslogd

Actions for syslogd

The syslogd daemon maintains logfiles on Linux distribution.   Discuss how you would use the syslogd  daemon to maintain a log file.

26) System Time

Actions for System Time

There are two methods of changing system time: date command and Network Time Protocol (NTP).  Discuss the significant advantages using NTP has over manually setting time using date command

27) Local Security Good Practices

Actions for Local Security Good Practices

Discuss in detail several effective local security practices to harden your Linux distribution.

28) ssh

Actions for ssh

Discuss what is SSH and the advantages and disadvantages of using it on your Linux distribution.
Also discuss how to control ssh access and how you configure this service.

29) Resolving Hostnames

Actions for Resolving Hostnames

Compare and contrast the following programs which are helpful in debugging TCP/IP networks:
1) nslookup
2) host
3) dig
4) whois

30) DNS

Actions for DNS

Discuss how you would configure your Linux distribution to perform name resolution using DNS.

31) XDM

Actions for XDM

A manager has asked the administrator to change the default background of her machine, which uses XDM. Which file does the administrator need to modify in order to achieve this?
Explain the main differences between XDM and KDM. Which would you prefer?

32) Linux-based Systems

Actions for Linux-based Systems

Please provide one example of a Linux Based (i.e. router, hypervisor, appliance, etc.) system.
Provide a brief product description, use, and function

33) lsof

Actions for lsof

Discuss how you would use the lsof command.  Provide some command examples

34) Day Light Saving Time

Actions for Day Light Saving Time

Must post first.
As everyone knows Daylight Savings Time (DST) events second Sunday 2am in March and first Sunday 2am in November for the states that participate.  What can you do to verify your Linux distribution won’t have any issues?

35) vi

Actions for vi

vi editor is a standard editor found on all Linux and UNIX systems.   It is best to be able to use it to insure you can edit a file.
Provide me at least five command line keys you can use when editing a file using vi editor.  Include a description for each commmand line key


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