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Cardiovascular disease is a significant public health problem in New Zealand. Statistics released in 2014 by the Ministry of Health revealed after cancer, Ischaemic heart disease was the second leading cause of death in 2011, accounting for 5534 deaths (18.3% of all deaths). Maori men had the highest age-standardised rate of ischaemic heart disease deaths, 1.7 times higher than for non-Maori men and the rate for Maori women was more than twice that of non-Maori women. Cerebrovascular disease was the third leading cause of death in the total population in 2011 and Maori women had the highest age-standardised mortality rate followed by Maori men. The mortality rate for Maori women was 31.1% higher than for non-Maori women and the equivalent rate was slightly higher for Maori men compared to non-Maori men. Plant sterols found naturally in small amounts in vegetable oils, nuts, seeds and vegetables are known to decrease LDL cholesterol levels and thereby help to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) allow plant sterols to be added to margarine spreads,  low fat milks, low fat yoghurts and breakfast cereals.
Task:
•    Discuss the pros and cons of delivering health benefits to relevant population groups in New Zealand, using margarines containing phytosterols /stanols as an example.
•    Include a critical analysis of the effectiveness of phytosterols /stanols for delivering their purported health benefits.
•    Provide a balanced appraisal of public health considerations such as health equity, cost and socioeconomic conditions, accessibility, freedom of choice and cultural acceptability.
Marking Guide    Max mark
Content: Correct expression of the facts using the correct scientific language, the synthesis and systematic arrangement of information, clear, easy to read communication, critical thinking.     10

Comprehensive evaluation of the public health benefits of a plant sterol fortified margarine. Consider the amount required for efficacy.    30
Discussion of public health implications:
1)    health equity
2)    freedom of choice and accessibility issues
3)    socioeconomic issues
4)    Treaty of Waitangi ( I will upload it in another file)    40
(10)
(10)
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Concluding remarks: concluding remarks about the most important aspects that came out from the assignment. Own opinion and conclusion.    10
Technical appearance: Title (short and descriptive), neat finishing, consistency, page numbers, correct use of abbreviations, tables & figures, etc.     5
References & reference list
Relevancy, consistency    5

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