Digestive System

Digestive System

1.  The Digestive System chapter is quite scattered with information all over the place; functions in one area, the digestive process in another area, and important details stuck in different charts.  I want you to put this information together in an organized, flowing form:  Starting with the mouth, working consecutively through the GI system and ending with defecation, discuss the digestive process.
You will need to include general functions of each organ and specific functions regarding what is happening to carbohydrates, fats, and proteins within each organ (if applicable), and exactly what enzymes are used in the process and what they specifically due.
For example what happens when food enters the stomach, what specific secretions and enzymes are released and their roles, and the what do these things do in regards to carbs, fats, proteins.
You will also need to include any accessory organs and their roles (salivary glands, liver, pancreas, gall bladder).
For the liver- discuss only the role of bile only!
Realize that absorption is covered in the next question.

2. Once nutrients are digested into smaller compounds the body must then absorb them (takes them up into circulation).  Describe how the body does this and discuss any difference between the nutrients during the process, if any.
Most substances that are absorbed from the GI tract go directly to the liver.  Besides making bile, what are the other functions of the liver (realize that most of these functions involve the nutrients that were recently absorbed!
Describe hunger and appetite, be sure to include any differences.

3.  Susan has been having substernal chest pain for the last 2 weeks when she lays down at night but the pain is relieved when she takes a tums.  Symptoms are worse on nights that she has a late dinner followed by coffee.  What is the cause of her symptoms and explain the pathology (underlying abnormality).
If not corrected what can this lead to?
What are the ways that Susan can manage (treat) these conditions?
Based on what you have learned this semester, do you think that constipation is a disease or a symptom, explain your answer?

4.  Define/describe carbohydrates, fats (include defining saturated, unsaturated, and essential), and proteins (include an explanation of essential amino acids).  HINT you may need to review the first few chapters for definitions.
In what proportions should we be consuming each on a daily basis?
What are benefits of having a high fiber diet?
Define obesity.  What are some causes of obesity and, from what you’ve acquired this semester, can you name at least 3 diseases where obesity is a risk factor?
BMI is one way of measuring and determining obesity, what is it and what are some drawbacks to this method?

5.  Describe the process in which our body regulates temperature and fever.
With excess heat, homeostasis may not be able to regulate temperature.  Describe the three different disorders associated with elevated body temperature and describe the interventions (treatments) of each.
Elderly and young children are more susceptible to temperature changes, why (you can also draw on your knowledge from other chapters covered this semester)?

6. Take me through a sperm’s life- Tell me where it is made, what hormones contribute to stimulating its production, where it is stored, the exact changes it goes through when it matures, what mixes with it to make semen, where does the semen come from (I want it broken down by gland and what each gland contributes and the functions of each contributing semen).
How long does a sperm cell typically live?

7.  Try putting it all together.  Ovulation and the menstrual cycle occur together and are influenced by hormones.  Read the chapter and look at the charts.
What are the menstrual cycle and ovulation?
Walk me through the menstrual cycle- What triggers the follicular phase and what is happening during this phase (in the ovaries –details of steps leading up to ovulation; with the hormones; in the uterus), what triggers ovulation?
After ovulation tell me everything that is happening in the luteal phase (in the ovaries; with the hormones; in the uterus).
What happens if fertilization does not occur (in the ovaries; with the hormones; and in the uterus)?

8. What is a hernia and more specifically an inguinal hernia and why are only men at risk for inguinal hernias?
Why does menopause occur?
What are causes of amenorrhea?
What are the causes of infertility in men and go into specific detail about what factors can affect sperm count?


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