The following 2 actions are ethically wrong.

For each of the actions:
a)list some of the problems (at least 5) that it can cause for society
b)state two ethical principles that it breaches with an explanation. Try to use different principles for each action.  (see appendix 1 below)

1- Mareya is a buyer of IT equipment for ADWEA (electricity company) . One of her suppliers provides her with an all-expenses-paid trip to Europe yearly. (5 problems that it can cause for society and 2 principles from the appendix below )

2-NewyorkTec is a company that provides IT services to several government ministries. Kirk works for Newyork Tec and is responsible for submitting the bids for contracts. kirk’s bids are always successful because he has a cousin working for the ministry who shares the competitor’s bids with him. . (5 problems that it can cause for society and choose 2  the most proper principles from the appendix below pls and relate it to the action , why you chose it and so on )

Appendix 1-
Ethical Principles

Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems

The Golden Rule: Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. Putting yourself into the place of others and thinking of yourself as the object of the decision can help you think about fairness in decision making.

Universalism: If an action is not right for all situations then it is not right for any specific situation (Immanuel Kant’s categorical imperative). Ask yourself, “If we adopted this rule in every case, could the organization, or society, survive?”

Slippery Slope: If an action cannot be taken repeatedly, then it is not right to take at all (Descartes’ rule of change). An action may appear to work in one instance to solve a problem, but if repeated, would result in a negative outcome. In plain English, this rule might be stated as: “once started down a slippery path, you may not be able to stop.”

Collective Utilitarian Principle: Take the action that achieves the greater value for all of society. This rule assumes you can prioritize values in a rank order and understand the consequences of various courses of action.

Risk Aversion: Take the action that produces the least harm, or the least potential cost. Some actions have extremely high failure costs of very low probability (e.g. building a nuclear generating facility in an urban area) or extremely high failure costs of moderate probability (speeding and automobile accidents). Avoid the high-failure cost actions and choose those actions whose consequences would not be catastrophic, even if there were a failure.

No Free Lunch: assume that virtually all tangible and intangible objects are owned by someone else unless there is a specific declaration otherwise. (This is the ethical “no free lunch” rule.) If something someone else has created is useful to you, it has value and you should assume the creator wants compensation for this work.

The New York Times Test (Perfect Information Rule): Assume that the results of your decision on a matter will be the subject of the lead article in the New York Times the next day. Will the reaction of readers be positive or negative? Would your parents, friends, and children be proud of your decision? Most criminals and unethical actors assume imperfect information, and therefore they assume their decisions and actions will never be revealed. When making decisions involving ethical dilemmas, it is wise to assume perfect information markets.

The Social Contract Rule: Would you like to live in a society where the principle you are supporting would become an organizing principle of the entire society? For instance, you might think it is wonderful to download illegal copies of music, tracks, but you might not want to live in a society that did not respect property rights, such as your property rights to the car in your driveway, or your rights to a term paper or original art.


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