How is transformational leadership communicated between employee and managers at Walmart

How is transformational leadership communicated between employee and managers at Walmart

Communication Ethnography
*******************You may choose to work with a partner on this project***************************

Goal:  To conduct a QUALITATIVE ethnographic study exploring an organizational setting using a model/theory of organizational culture as a method of analysis.

Procedure:  You are an ethnographer who is charged with studying an organizational culture.  You are to research the organization using a method of analysis that will allow you to study various concepts related to organizational culture.  You must incorporate a minimum of 25 sources.  More sources are always welcome.  These sources will focus on your theoretical model, the concept of organizational culture, other organizational culture studies or your actual organization.  YOU MAY WORK WITH A PARTNER!

Outcome:  10-15 page typed paper (not including the cover page, abstract page, references, or appendixes).  APA formatted (this includes citations, cover pages, abstract, headings, subheadings, organization, appendixes, and references).

There are many ways of writing an ethnography.  However there are several factors that must be addressed to make sure your readers understand what you studied and why you studied it.  The following questions are meant to GUIDE you.

The general organizational pattern is:
1.    Cover page
2.    Abstract page
3.    Body includes
a.    Introduction
b.    Literature Review
c.    Methodology/Method Section
d.    Analysis Section
e.    Conclusion
4.    Reference pages
5.    Appendixes
?    Introduction
o    This is a set-up for the case study.
o    It should offer a general introduction to your organization.
o    It should discuss the goals of the study.
o    This section offers a clear thesis/preview outlining the organization of the paper.
?    Literature Review
o    According to Taylor and Proctor (2005) “a literature review is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers. In writing the literature review, your purpose is to convey to your reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic, and what their strengths and weaknesses are. As a piece of writing, the literature review must be defined by a guiding concept (e.g., your research objective, the problem or issue you are discussing, or your argumentative thesis). It is not just a descriptive list of the materials available, or a set of summaries” (para. 1).
o    A literature review must prove there is a need for your study.  It does so by including these things:
?    be organized around and related directly to the thesis or research question you are developing
?    synthesize results into a summary of what is and is not known about your subject matter
?    identify areas of controversy in the literature
?    At the end of this section include your research question that will guide your study.  Make sure it follows the XYZ formula discussed in class.
?    For more information by Taylor and Proctor (2005) go to
?    Methodology
?    How are you going to do what you are proposing to do?  What’s your overall design? For example are you a participant observer using a specific communication model to analyze the communication in the culture?  How will this be conducted.  Be specific.
?    You must describe and justify the framework (theory) and how it will be used in the analysis section.  For most of you this is Schein’s model.
?    Is your approach influenced by other people you have read?  Who?  Why?
?    Who did you study?  How did you select your participants?  Why did you use these specific participants?
?    What methods are you using? (interviews, notes, papers you collected; number of participants; age, gender, general background)
?    If you have an observation log, be sure to reference it.  (See appendix)
?    Why are you using these methods?  What makes them work better than other methods?
?    How do you fit into the picture?  What do you bring to the study?  What are your goals?  What are your experiences.  How are you bracketing your biases?
?    Analysis of data
o    Provide an internal preview explaining how the model will be used as a framework to guide the discussion below.
o    This will be the long part of your paper.  Here you present your findings, engage in thick description, analyze/interpret the data you collected by applying your model.  Go through your data, find out if there is any pattern, major points that come up again and again, discrepancies that are important to note.  Make sure you explain why you chose the information you are presenting and why you leave out other aspects that you also explored but are not telling us about.
o    Similar to any other paper, you need to support and develop your main points by using specific examples(interviews) from your data collection.  You can structure your study around
?    Thematic units (Artifacts, Values, and Assumptions)
?    Distinct cultural practices within the group you studied
?    Creating an argument means:
•    Claim
•    Support
•    Analysis
?    Conclusion
o    In this final section you indicate what your study tried to contribute to the discussion and what still needs to be done
o    Repeat and answer your research question
o    Discuss how your line of argument needs further discussion
o    Discuss the parts of your question that remains unanswered
o    Discuss the next question to be answered
o    Discuss the implications of your main findings for later discussions.

?    Appendix
o    This will include your observation log and any extraneous information
o    It must be typed or scanned into the paper.


?    Using any sources such as textbooks, Wikipedia, and  in a formal research paper is a bad idea.
?    You must use original research describing your theory/model  Anytime your theory/model is mentioned there must be a citation.
?    The research question must appear at the end of the literature review.  The literature review should progress towards this –question logically and with transitions.  It should be clear that there is a need for your study.
?    The analysis must apply and utilize a communication model/theory
?    The conclusion must answer the research question and be supported by the analysis

Formatting/Construction    25%    Are all parts present (see above)?
Is APA correct?
Are sources used appropriately?
Content  50%    Does each section show understanding of the process required for analysis?
Depth  25%    Is there a synthesis or cohesion to the paper with links between sections?

Suggested research questions:

How  is the organizational culture of Walmart co-created by the employees?
How does a religious affiliation for the Walmart influence its organizational culture?
What role do customers play in the co-creation of the culture of Walmart?
How are the corporate values instilled in employees during the assimilation process at the Walmart?
What employee behaviors do customers perceive as communicating transformational leadership at Walmart
What metaphors do employees use to describe their relationship with Walmart?
What metaphors do customers use to describe their relationship with Walmart?
How does management instill corporate values in employees at Walmart?
How do front line workers overcome communication based challenges?
How do managers establish their credibility through their use of self-disclosure?
What communication strategies has Walmart developed to address problems they encounter?
What role does technology play in advertising at Walmart?

Other areas of interest may include: Public relations, technology, Children, The Cows, The actual food products, etc.


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