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DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS;

TASK 1: CREATE A FOLDER FOR
YOUR SPSS DATA
and
ACCESS SPSS
Step 1: Log-in using your UoP log-in
Step 2: On ‘My Computer’, find your Student Drive and create a new folder on your student
drive named:
Researching Crim 2 Computer Practicals
Minimize this window
Step 3: Open IBM Statistics SPSS Version 21
Minimize this window
Step 4:
On the Student desktop, there is an applet: MyApps (Application Jukebox).
ail
MyApps
Click on this to find IBM Statistics SPSS Version 21 (or later versions of v.21); and click
Launch.
Alternatively, if this icon does not appear, in the Start Menu, find
ALL PROGRAMS > IBM SPSS STATISTICS > IBM SPSS > STATISTICS 21
Note: Launching SPSS can take up to 10 minutes in any of the pooled IT labs or IT suites if
this is the first time that you are using a computer in that facility.

TASK 1: CREATE A FOLDER FOR
YOUR SPSS DATA
and
ACCESS SPSS
Step 1: Log-in using your UoP log-in
Step 2: On ‘My Computer’, find your Student Drive and create a new folder on your student
drive named:
Researching Crim 2 Computer Practicals
Minimize this window
Step 3: Open IBM Statistics SPSS Version 21
Minimize this window
Step 4:
On the Student desktop, there is an applet: MyApps (Application Jukebox).
Click on this to find IBM Statistics SPSS Version 21 (or later versions of v.21); and click
Launch.
Alternatively, if this icon does not appear, in the Start Menu, find
ALL PROGRAMS > IBM SPSS STATISTICS > IBM SPSS > STATISTICS 21
Note: Launching SPSS can take up to 10 minutes in any of the pooled IT labs or IT suites if
this is the first time that you are using a computer in that facility.
1
Step 5: Close the window: ‘What would you like to do?’
[Click on ? top right-hand side of this window.]
Step 6: Minimize SPSS window
TASK 2: ACCESS SPSS SURVEY 2014
VARIABLES SPREADSHEET
2.1. Log-in to Moodle
2.2. Open the site for Researching Criminology 2
2.3. Locate the section: Resources for Group Research Project
2.4. Locate the Moodle ‘folder’:
SPSS Data Files & Qualitative Data Files (Interview Transcripts)
2.5. In that folder, find and click on the folder: Survey 2014
2.6. In this folder, find and click on the file: SPSS Survey 2014 Variables.sav
2.7. The file should open in SPSS
2.8. Save this SPSS file in the Student Drive folder that you created as part of Task 1.
Name this file: Week 6 SPSS [YOUR NAME].sav
2.9. Minimize the Moodle window.
2.10. In Variable View, have a look at how each question from the survey has been coded
and entered into the SPSS spreadsheet.
Take some time to familiarize yourself with the Labels and Values for each variable.
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TASK 3: ENTERING THE DATA
3.1. Now open the Data View by clicking on the bottom tab: Data View
3.2. Enter the data from each of your completed questionnaires.
Use the Coding Frame to help you enter the correct values.
Note: Any missing values should be left blank (empty)
3.3. SAVE YOUR WORK after entering each questionnaire
Note: After each Save, an Output file will appear.
You do not save these Output files.
TASK 4: CHECKING YOUR DATA
4.1.Find a partner
4.2.Have your partner check the data entry for two of your questionnaires.
SAVE: YOUR DATA FILE
Ensure that you have used the file name:
Week 6 SPSS [YOUR NAME].sav
Note: We recommend that you save your data file on your student drive. But you can also
save it to a USB.
TASK 5: SUBMIT YOUR DATA FILE
5.1. Email your data file (as an attachment) to your seminar tutor.
Send yourself a copy of this email as added insurance that you have a copy of this data
file.
Note: If you do not complete your data entry during this practical, you must complete it and
send it to your seminar tutor before the seminar in Week 7. You can use any of the Open
Access IT suites to access SPSS.
3
TASK 6: EXPLORING DESCRIPTIVE
STATISTICS
Accessing the Teaching Data Set
(Survey 2013)
6.1. Open the Moodle site for Researching Criminology 2
6.2. Locate the Moodle ‘folder’:
SPSS Data Files & Qualitative Data Files (Interview Transcripts)
6.3. In that folder, find and click on the folder: Teaching Data Set for Computer Practical #1
6.4. In this folder, find and click on the file: Teaching Data Set (Survey 2013)
6.5. The file should open in SPSS
6.6. Save this SPSS file in the Student Drive folder that you created as part of Task 1.
Name this file: Teaching Data Set [YOUR NAME].sav
6.7. Log-out of Moodle and close the Moodle window. (Keeping this window open can
slow down your computer and/or cause your computer to close down SPSS.)
TASK 7: EXPLORING DESCRIPTIVE
STATISTICS
FREQUENCIES:
Sample characteristics
Demographics
We can use descriptive statistics to help us understand large amounts of data.
If you have Scale data, it makes sense to calculate the Mean (the average score) for
variables.
If you have Nominal data, calculating the Mean score would make no sense. For example,
you cannot have a Mean (average) of Male and Female. With Nominal data, we therefore
generate Frequencies.
We will now explore how to generate Frequencies in SPSS using the data that was gathered
from the survey that ICJS students conducted in September 2013.
Note: This data set is only for teaching purposes. You do not include any of the data from
Task 7 in your final research report (Artefact 2).
4
7.1. Exploring sample characteristics (nominal data – frequencies)
Gender, Level of Study, Full-time/Part-time (FTPT)
In Data View, in the top Tool Bar, click on:
Analyze -> Descriptive Statistics -> Frequencies
Move each of the sample characteristics (see above) into the Variables box.
Click on: OK.
An Output window will appear with tables for each of the variables.
Question 7.1.
What do these descriptive statistics (frequency tables) tell us about our sample of
respondents?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Minimize the Output window.
7.2. Generating graphs for sample characteristics (nominal data – frequencies)
Bar graph: Level of Study
[Still in Data View]
In the top Tool Bar, click on: Analyze -> Descriptive Statistics -> Frequencies
Move each of the sample characteristics out of the Variables box except for
Level of Study.
Click on: Charts
Click on: Bar Charts and radio button: Frequencies
Click on: Continue. Click on: OK.
A bar chart will appear in the Output window.
Question 7.2.
Is this a clearer way of presenting the results for the year (level) of study are respondents are
in than using a table? …………………………………………………………………………
Minimize the Output window.
7.3. Generating graphs for sample characteristics (scale data – mean)
Pie chart: Age of participant
[Still in Data View]
In the top Tool Bar, click on: Analyze -> Descriptive Statistics -> Frequencies
Move Year of Study out of the Variables box. Or click: Reset.
Move Age of participant into the Variables box.
Click on: Charts
Click on: Pie Charts and the radio button: Percentages
Click on: Continue. Click on: OK.
A pie chart will appear in the Output window.
Question 7.3.
Are there any disadvantages to presenting results in a pie chart?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………..
5
7.4. Editing a pie chart
You can add the percentage values to your pie chart.
[In Output View]
Double-click on your pie chart.
Chart Editor dialogue box will appear.
Click on: Elements.
Click on: Show Data Labels.
Properties dialogue box will appear. Close this box.
The percentage values should now show on your pie chart.
If you want to, you can have some fun playing around with the Chart Editor to change
other elements in the appearance of your pie chart.
Close the Chart Editor when you have completed all the changes you want to make.
SAVE THIS OUTPUT FILE as:
Teaching Data Set Output Week 6
in your folder:
Researching Crim 2 Computer practicals.
End this computer practical
Close the Output File
In the top Tool Bar, click on: Analyze -> Descriptive Statistics -> Frequencies
In the Dialogue box, click Reset.
Close SPSS Statistics
Log out.
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RESEARCHING CRIMINOLOGY 2
WORKBOOK FOR WEEK 7
2014
(Computer Practical 2)
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND INFERENTIAL
STATISICS
(SEMINAR GROUP DATA FILE)
Step 1: Log-in using your UoP log-in
Step 2: Open SPSS
Step 3: Minimize SPSS window
TASK 1: ACCESS YOUR SEMINAR
GROUP SPSS DATA FILE
1.1. Log-in to Moodle
1.2. Open the site for Researching Criminology 2
1.3. Locate the section: Resources for Group Research Project
1.4. Locate the folder: SPSS Data Files & Qualitative Data Files (Interview Transcripts)
1.5. Open the folder and find the SPSS data file for your seminar group
1.6. Open this data file
1.7. The file should open in SPSS
1.8. Save the file in SPSS in the folder on your Student Drive that you created in the
Computer Practical 1. Keep the file name the same.
1.9. Log out of Moodle
1
TASK 2: EXPLORING DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
FREQUENCIES:
SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS
In today’s computer practical, we will begin by exploring some of the characteristics of your
sample of respondents, using descriptive statistics.
2.1. Exploring sample characteristics (nominal data – frequencies)
Gender
Level of Study
Full-time/Part-time (Qu6FTPT)
In the top Tool Bar, click on: Analyze -> Descriptive Statistics -> Frequencies
Move each of the sample characteristics (see above) into the Variables box.
Click on: OK.
An Output window will appear with tables for each of the variables.
Question 2.1.
What do these descriptive statistics tell us about our sample of respondents?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2.2. Generating graphs for sample characteristics (nominal data – frequencies)
Bar graph: Level of Study
[Still in Output View]
In the top Tool Bar, click on: Analyze -> Descriptive Statistics -> Frequencies
Move each of the sample characteristics out of the Variables box except for
Year of Study.
Click on: Charts
Click on: Bar Charts and radio button: Frequencies
Click on: Continue. Click on: OK.
A bar chart will appear in the Output window.
2.3. Generating graphs for sample characteristics (nominal data – frequencies)
[Still in Output View]
Using the same steps as you used in Computer Practical 1, generate a Pie Chart for any
one of the three sample characteristics (see 2.1).
Question 2.2
Would you use this chart in a research report? Provide reasons for your answer.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
2
SAVE THIS OUTPUT FILE as:
[Name of seminar group] Output file
in your folder
Researching Crim 2 Computer Practicals
NOW SAVE THIS OUTPUT FILE IN MS WORD
Saving your Output files in MS Word means that you can use these files for Artefact 2 and you
do not have to have SPSS installed on your computer.
Click on: File > Export
In ‘Objects to Export’, click on: All
Select the Researching Crim 2 Computer Practicals folder on your Student Drive.
(You may have to use the Browse function to find this drive.)
Give the Output file the same name as its SPSS version: [Name of seminar group] Output file.
Click: OK
Check that:
– the contents of this MS Word file match the contents of the SPSS Output file; and
– the location of this MS Word file is correct
2.4. Close the Output file.
In the top Tool Bar, click on: Analyze -> Descriptive Statistics -> Frequencies
Reset to remove any variables remaining in this dialog box.
Remember: Always reset all variables before moving on to analyse the next variable/ set of
variables.
3
TASK 3: EXPLORING DESCRIPTIVE
STATISTICS
PERCEPTIONS OF ASB
3.1. Exploring perceptions of ASB:
Question 7: Variables 7A – 7T (Behaviours considered to be ASB)
In the top Tool Bar, click on: Analyze -> Descriptive Statistics -> Frequencies
Move each of the sample characteristics (Variables 7A – 7T) into the Variables box.
Click on: Statistics. Select: Mean
Click on: Continue
Click on: OK.
An Output window will appear with tables for each of the variables.
Question 3
What do these tables tell us about the behaviours that our respondents perceive to be ASB?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………………………..
SAVE YOUR OUTPUT FILES IN SPSS AND IN MS
WORD
3.2. Close the Output file.
In the top Tool Bar, click on: Analyze -> Descriptive Statistics -> Frequencies
Reset to remove any variables remaining in this dialog box.
Remember: Always reset all variables before moving on to analyse the next variable/ set of
variables.
4
TASK 4:
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN
PERCEPTIONS OF ASB
Independent-samples t-test
?
We are going to use an Independent-samples t-test to compare whether there is any
significant difference between female and male respondents in terms of the extent to
which they consider certain behaviours to be Anti-Social Behaviour.
?
The independent-samples t-test is a parametric test that compares means for two
groups of cases, where the data collected on the groups is SCALE (or continuous
data). It enables us to evaluate whether there are any statistically significant
differences between groups of cases. We are going to group cases by the
characteristic:
– Gender (male/female)
Aim : To establish whether there are any statistically significant differences between the
men and women in our survey with regard to the extent to which they consider types
of behaviour to be ASB (Question 7).
For this seminar, we will look only at three of the behaviours:
7B: Vandalism
7N: Intimidating behaviour towards others
7P: Verbal abuse
?
In the Tool Bar: click on Analyse > Compare Means > Independent-Samples T test
Move each of the behaviours (see above) into the Variables box.
Select Gender as your Grouping variable.
Click on ‘Define groups’ and enter 1 as a value for ‘Group 1’ and 2 as a value for
‘Group 2’.
Click on: Continue.Then click on ‘OK’.
?
The results of the t-test analysis will now appear in the Output window.
?
Identify which of the three behaviours have p values that are: p<.05 or p=.05
Question 4
What are the implication of these results?
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………….
Note
If you do not remember how to analyze an independent-samples t-test, use the guidance on
the following pages
?
?
Remember: SAVE your OUTPUT file in SPSS and in MS Word
Remember: Reset the variables
5
Guidance on interpreting an independent-samples t-test.
Here is an example of an Output for an independent-samples t-test.
The first table shows the statistics for the two groups including the means and the standard
deviations.
In this example, it is possible to see that the mean score for females was 2.38 compared with
2.05 for males – a higher score indicates more worry – so these mean scores suggest that
females were more worried than males about being physically attacked by strangers.
However we are more interested in whether this difference is statistically significant (i.e. that
it did not occur by chance).
The second table shows the t- test statistics which you now have to interpret to establish
statistical significance.
Interpreting the t-test is in two parts:
(1) Levene’s test for Equality of Variance tests the assumption that the two
populations being compared are of equal variance.
If this value (Sig.) is more than .05, then you refer to the ‘Equal variances
assumed’ row.
If the value (Sig.) is less than .05, then you refer to the ‘Equal variances not
assumed’ row. In the above example, the Sig. value is .000 and we therefore would
use the results for the row: Equal variances not assumed.
(2) The t-test:
In the above example, find: the t value (t) , the degrees of freedom (df), and the Sig.
(2-tailed) for the row: Equal variances not assumed.
The Sig. (2-tailed) value is the p value.
You will see that the Sig. (2-tailed) value is .000. We would report this as p <.001.
[See Note 1 on following page.)
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If a p value is equal to or less than .05 (p=.05), we can say that there is a
statistically significant difference between the means and therefore there is a
significant difference between males and females regarding fear of being attacked.
However, if a p value is more than .05, there is no significant difference.
In our example, as p <.001, we can therefore conclude that females were
significantly more worried about being physically attacked by strangers.
[See Note 2 below for the APA format for reporting the results of an independentsamples t-test.]
Note 1:
When you report probability values from SPSS that are displayed as .000, you actually report
is as p < .001.
Note 2: How to report a t-test
T-tests are reported as follows
t (degrees of freedom) = the t statistic value (rounded to two decimal places), probability
value and for each group (mean score, standard deviation).
For example):
There was a significant effect for gender, t (54) = 5.43, p < .01, with men (M 3.6, SD 1.2)
receiving higher scores than women (M 2.1, SD 1.01).
Important: This is a fictitious example. It is not the result for the independent-samples t-test
for our Researching Criminology 2 survey (or the result for our example on the previous
page).
7
TASK 5:
ASSOCIATION BETWEEN
GENDER
and
THOSE ACCUSED OF ASB/NOT ACCUSED OF ASB
?2 (Chi-square test)
?
?2 or the Chi-square test for independence (abbreviated to: Chi-square test) is a
non-parametric test that is used when you want to explore the relationship
between two NOMINAL (or categorical) variables. Each of these variables can
have two or more categories. The test compares the frequencies or proportions of
cases that occur in each of these categories, with the values that would be expected if
there was no association between the two variables being measured. The test is based
on a table known as a crosstabulation.
?
In essence, a Chi-square test determines whether the observed values are significantly
different from those expected. The expected values are determined by assuming that
the phenomena in question are distributed equally.
Aim : To establish whether there are any statistically significant association between: those
respondents who have been accused of ASB and those respondents who have not
been accused of ASB, in terms of gender.
We are going to use a 2 x 2 table:
– Gender (Qu1)
by
– Ever accused of ASB? (Qu32A)
?
Click on: Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Crosstabs
Move Gender (Qu1) into the Rows box.
Move EverAccussed (Qu32A) into the Columns box
Click on: Cells
In Cells Display window, under Counts select Observed and Expected.
Still in Cells Display: – under Percentages, select Column
– under Residuals, select Unstandardized and Adjusted
Standardized.
Click on: Continue.
Click on: Statistics
In the Crosstabs: Statistics window, click on Chi-square
Click on: Continue
Click on OK
Three tables will appear in the output window:
1) The first table show the details of your data, such as missing data, and total numbers of
items.
2) The second table shows the profile of your data in terms of your chosen variables. Each
cell contains the actual number of cases falling within that category. The cells also contain
8
the expected count – that is the number of cases that we would expect to find in that cell if
there was no association between the variables.
3) The third table shows the Chi-squared value (Pearson Chi-Square). You should note the
Chi-squared value (Value) and the significance value (Asymp.Sig).
Below is an example of an Output for a Chi-square test for independence.
[Important: This is not the result for Chi-square for our survey respondents.]
Note: For a 2 by 2 table the expected count should not be less than 5. If it is less than 5,
then Chi-squared should not be used – this means you sample is not large enough to conduct
this type of analysis.
Step 1:Have a look at the Count and Expected counts in the 2nd table above (the largest box).
Is there a difference between these numbers?
There appears to be a difference between all numbers – e.g. the number of victims of
crime in the rural area was expected to be 600.6, based on the sample size but it
actually was a lot lower at 413. This is the Descriptive part of the analysis. Step 2
covers the inferential part.
9
Step 2 In the 3rd table above (labelled Chi-square Tests). Look at the probability value under
Pearson Chi-Square – Asymp.Sig (this is the probability that these results occurred
by chance – so we want it to be as low as possible). If this value is lower than 5% or
in SPSS terms, .05 then we can conclude that the proportion of people who have been
victims of crime in urban areas is significantly different from the proportion of people
who have been victims of crime in rural areas. In this particular case, the reported
probability that the difference occurred by chance is .000, meaning very low. This is a
highly significant finding.
Interpreting the Chi-square for our chosen variables (Gender, Ever Accused of ASB)
Step 1: Have a look at the Count and Expected counts in the 2nd table.
Is there a difference between these numbers?
……………………………………………………………………………………….
If there is, we can proceed to the inferential part of the analysis.
Step 2: Find: the Pearson Chi-square value (Value), the degrees of freedom (df), and the
Asymp. Sig. (2-sided).
Identify whether the p value is: p<.05 or p=.05
If a p value is EQUAL to or LESS than .05 (p=.05), we can say that there is
a statistically significant association between the gender of the respondent and
whether that respondent has ever been accused of ASB.
However, if a p value is more than 0.05, there is no statistically significant
association.
Question 5
What are the implication of these results?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
How to report a Chi-square
Chi-square statistics are reported with degrees of freedom and sample size in parentheses, the
Pearson chi-square value (rounded to two decimal places), and the significance level.
For example:
The percentage of participants that reported a fear of crime was not associated with gender,
chi-square (1, N = 90) = 0.89, p = .35.
Important: This is a fictitious example. It is not the result for Chi-square for your survey
respondents.
?
?
Remember: SAVE your OUTPUT file in SPSS and in MS Word
Reset the variables
10

RESEARCHING CRIMINOLOGY 2
WORKBOOK FOR WEEK 9
2014
(Computer practical 4)
ANALYSIS OF COMBINED GROUP DATA:
LARGE DATA SET
IMPORTANT
For Artefact 2 (the report on the group research project), you must use only:
– the Large Data Set 2014; and
– the data analysis that you have completed using this Large Data Set 2014.
Step 1: Log-in using your UoP log-in
Step 2: Open SPSS using the MyApps programme launcher (Application Jukebox Player)
Step 3: Minimize SPSS window
TASK 1: ACCESS THE LARGE DATA
SET SPSS FILE
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.
1.7.
1.8.
1.9.
Log-in to Moodle
Open the site for Researching Criminology 2
Locate the section: Resources for Group Research Project
Locate the folder: Survey 2014
Open the folder; and find the data file: Large Data Set 2014
Open this file
The file should open in SPSS
Save the file in SPSS in the folder on your Student Drive that you created in the
Computer Practical 1.
Keep the file name the same.
Log out of Moodle
1
TASK 2:
SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS
Task 2.1. Exploring sample characteristics (nominal data – frequencies)
Sample size
Gender (Qu1)
Level of Study (Qu4)
Full-time/Part-time (Qu6)
Complete the following questions.
Note: For Artefact 2, you need to decide how you are going to display the answers to the
questions for Task 2. Tables and/or graphs are not always suitable. For example, you could
write out the answer in a single sentence.
Question 2.1.
Size of N
What is the total number of respondents for all of the seminar groups? …………….
Question 2.2
Generate frequency tables for the variables:
Gender (Qu1)
Level of Study (Qu4)
Full-time/Part-time (Qu6)
(a) Gender (Qu1)
The University of Portsmouth reported that in December 2013, the student population
comprised:
Female 45%
Male 55%
http://www.port.ac.uk/media/why-portsmouth/institution/UoP-Facts-and-Figures2013_14.pdf
What is the gender distribution for our survey respondents?
Female ……..
Male ……..
How does this gender distribution compare with the UoP figures?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2
(b) Level of study (Qu4)
What is the Level of Study distribution for our survey respondents?
(c) Full-time/Part-time (Qu5)
The University of Portsmouth reported that in December 2013, the student population
comprised:
Full-time 83%
Part-time 17%
http://www.port.ac.uk/media/why-portsmouth/institution/UoP-Facts-and-Figures2013_14.pdf
What is the Full-time/Part-time distribution for our survey respondents?
F/T ……..
P/T ……..
How does the full-time/part-time distribution of our survey respondents compare with
the UoP figures?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Task 2.2. Generating sample characteristics:
Housing type (Qu3A)
Occupational size: Privately rented, shared with other students (Qu3B)
Generate frequency tables for all of the above variables.
Generate graphs for these variables (bar graph or pie chart)
Question 2.2.
What do these tables and graphs tell us about the types of housing for the majority of our
respondents?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
SAVE THIS OUTPUT FILE as an SPSS OUTPUT FILE
and as a MS Word file
in your folder: Researching Crim 2 Computer Practicals
REMEMBER TO GIVE THE FILE A NAME YOU CAN REMEMBER
and
RESET all variables in the ‘Analyse’ Dialogue window
3
TASK 3:
STUDENTS’ EXPERIENCES OF ASB
Task 3 Generate frequency tables for the following questions from Section C of the survey
questionnaire: Your experience of Anti-Social Behaviour (ASB)
Q. 11 (ASB Household)
Q. 18 (ASB Neighbours)
Q. 25 (ASB Portsmouth)
Question 3.1
What do these tables tell us about:
– the extent to which our sample of respondents have been victims of ASB?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
TASK 4:
STUDENTS AS PERPETRATORS OF
ASB
Task 4 Generate frequency tables for:
– Extent to which Portsmouth public perceives students as perpetrators of ASB
(Qu9)
– Whether respondent ever accused of ASB when a student (Qu32A)
Question 4.1.
What do these tables tell us about:
– the extent to which Portsmouth public perceptions of the perpetrators of ASB (according
to our sample of respondents)?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
– the extent of ASB among our sample of respondents?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
SAVE THIS OUTPUT FILE (SPSS and MS Word)
and
RESET all variables in the ‘Analyse’ Dialogue window
4
TASK 5:
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN
PERCEPTIONS OF ASB
Independent-samples t-test
?
We are going to use an independent-samples t-test to compare whether there is any
significant difference between female and male respondents in terms of the extent
to which they consider certain behaviours to be Anti-Social Behaviour.
?
The independent-samples t-test is a parametric test that compares means for two
groups of cases, where the data collected on the groups is SCALE (or continuous
data). It enables us to evaluate whether there are any statistically significant
differences between groups of cases. We are going to group cases by the
characteristic:
– Gender (male/female)
Aim : To establish whether there are any statistically significant differences between the
men and women in our survey with regard to the extent to which they consider types
of behaviour to be ASB.
For this seminar, we will look only at the following 4 behaviours:
7H: People being drunk in a public place
7J: Using an imitation firearm/airgun in a public place
7M: Violent behaviour towards others
7T: Young people engaging in ‘tombstoning’
?
In the Tool Bar: click on Analyse > Compare Means > Independent-Samples T test
Move each of the dimensions (see above) into the Variables box.
Select Gender as your Grouping variable.
Click on ‘Define groups’ and enter 1 as a value for ‘Group 1’ and 2 as a value for
‘Group 2’.
Click on Continue and then click on OK.
The results of the t-test analysis will now appear in the Output window.
Interpreting the t-test is in two parts:
(1) Levene’s test for Equality of Variance tests the assumption that the two
populations being compared are of equal variance.
If this value (Sig.) is more than .05, then you refer to the ‘Equal variances
assumed’ row.
If the value (Sig.) is less than .05, then you refer to the ‘Equal variances not
assumed’ row.
5
(2) The t-test:
For each of our selected behaviours, find:
– the correct row; and then
– the t value (t) , the degrees of freedom (df), and the 2-tailed significance value
[Sig. (2-tailed)] (p value).
Note: When an SPSS Output files reports p = .000, then we can report this as p < .001
Identify which of the behaviours have p values [Sig. (2-tailed)] that are:
p<0.05 or p=0.05
If a p value is EQUAL to or LESS than 0.05 (p=0.05), we can say that there is
STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE between the means and therefore there
is a significant difference between the perceptions of males and females of the selected
behaviours.
However, if a p value is more than 0.05, there is no significant difference.
How to report a t-test
t-tests are reported with the degrees of freedom in parentheses, the t statistic value
(rounded to two decimal places) and the significance level.
For example:
There was a significant effect for gender, t(54) = 5.43, p < .01, with men (M 3.6, SD 1.2)
receiving higher scores than women (M 2.1, SD 1.01).
Important: This is a fictitious example. It is not the result for our T Tests.
Question 5
Report the results for each of the t-tests.
7H: People being drunk in a public place
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
7J: Using an imitation firearm/airgun in a public place
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
7M: Violent behaviour to others
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
7T: Young people engaging in ‘tombstoning’
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Note: For Artefact 2, you must provide the result for at least one t-test.
? SAVE YOUR OUTPUT FILE (SPSS and MS Word)
? RESET all variables in the ‘Analyse’ Dialogue window
6
TASK 6:
ASSOCIATION BETWEEN
GENDER
and
STUDENTS’ EXPERIENCE OF ASB
?2 (Chi-square test)
?
?2 or the Chi-square test for independence (abbreviated to: Chi-square test) is a
non-parametric test that is used when you want to explore the relationship
between two NOMINAL (or categorical) variables. Each of these variables can have
two or more categories. The test compares the frequencies or proportions of cases
that occur in each of these categories, with the values that would be expected if
there was no association between the two variables being measured. The test is base
on a table known as a crosstabulation.
?
In essence, a Chi-square test determines whether the observed values are
significantly different from those expected. The expected values are determined by
assuming that the phenomena in question are distributed equally.
Aim : To establish whether there are any statistically significant association between: those
respondents who have been experienced ASB and those respondents who have not
been experienced ASB, in terms of gender.
?
Click on: Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Crosstabs
Move Gender (Qu1) into the Rows box.
Move the following variables into the Columns box:
Q. 11 (ASB Household)
Q. 18 (ASB Neighbours)
Q. 25 (ASB Portsmouth)
Click on: Cells
In Cells Display window, under Counts select Observed and Expected.
Still in Cells Display: – under Percentages, select Column
– under Residuals, select Unstandardized and Adjusted
Standardized.
Click on: Continue.
Click on: Statistics
In the Crosstabs: Statistics window, click on Chi-square
Click on: Continue
Click on OK
The results of the chi-square analysis will now appear in the Output window.
7
Interpreting the Chi-square for our chosen variables
Step 1: Have a look at the Count and Expected counts in each Crosstab table.
Is there a difference between these numbers?
……………………………………………………………………………………….
If there is, we can proceed to the inferential part of the analysis.
Step 2: For each variable, in the Chi-Square Tests table, find:
the Pearson Chi-square value (Value), the degrees of freedom (df), and the
Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) (p value)
Identify whether the p value is: p<.05 or p=.05
Note: When an SPSS Output files reports p = .000, then we can report this as p < .001
If a p value is EQUAL to or LESS than .05 (p=.05), we can say that there is a statistically
significant association between the gender of the respondent and whether the respondent
has experienced ASB in a particular context (household, neighbours and/or other parts of
Portsmouth).
However, if a p value is more than 0.05, there is no statistically significant association.
How to report a Chi-square
Chi-square statistics are reported with degrees of freedom and sample size in parentheses,
the Pearson chi-square value (rounded to two decimal places), and the significance level.
For example:
The percentage of participants that reported a fear of crime was not associated with gender,
chi-square (1, N = 90) = 0.89, p = .35.
Important: This is a fictitious example. It is not the result for Chi-square for your survey
respondents.
Question 6
Report the result for the Pearson Chi-square test for
Q. 11 (ASB Household)
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Q. 18 (ASB Neighbours)
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Q. 25 (ASB Portsmouth)
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
? SAVE YOUR OUTPUT FILE (SPSS and MS Word)
? RESET all variables in the ‘Analyse’ Dialogue window
8
TASK 7:
ASSOCIATION BETWEEN
GENDER
and
THOSE ACCUSED OF ASB/NOT ACCUSED OF ASB
?2 (Chi-square test)
Aim : To establish whether there are any statistically significant association between: those
respondents who have been accused of ASB and those respondents who have not
been accused of ASB, in terms of gender.
Note: This is an analysis that is in addition to those that relate to the main aims of the
research project and that we thought might be interesting.
?
Click on: Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Crosstabs
Move Gender (Qu1) into the Rows box.
Move EverAccussed (Qu32A) into the Columns box
Click on: Cells
In Cells Display window, under Counts select Observed and Expected.
Still in Cells Display: – under Percentages, select Column
– under Residuals, select Unstandardized and Adjusted
Standardized.
Click on: Continue.
Click on: Statistics
In the Crosstabs: Statistics window, click on Chi-square
Click on: Continue
Click on OK
Interpreting the Chi-square for our chosen variables (Gender, Ever Accused of ASB)
Step 1: Have a look at the Count and Expected counts in the 2nd table.
Is there a difference between these numbers?
……………………………………………………………………………………….
If there is, we can proceed to the inferential part of the analysis.
Step 2: Find: the Pearson Chi-square value (Value), the degrees of freedom (df), and the
Asymp. Sig. (2-sided).
Identify whether the p value is: p<.05 or p=.05
Note: When an SPSS Output files reports p = .000, then we can report this as p < .001
9
If a p value is EQUAL to or LESS than .05 (p=.05), we can say that there is a statistically
significant association between the gender of the respondent and whether the respondent
has experienced ASB in a particular context (household, neighbours and/or other parts of
Portsmouth).
However, if a p value is more than 0.05, there is no statistically significant association.
How to report a Chi-square
See the guidance for Task 6
Question 7
Report the result for the Pearson Chi-square test (Gender, Ever Accused of ASB).
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
? SAVE YOUR OUTPUT FILE (SPSS and MS Word)
? RESET all variables in the ‘Analyse’ Dialogue window
Note: For Artefact 2, you must provide the result for at least one Pearson Chi-square test.
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