Leadership and organization
2. Leadership theories
2.1 Trait approach
2.2 Situational Leadership theory (Blanchard et al, 1985)
2.3 Transformational leadership theory (Bass and Avolio’s 1990:1994), Burns (1978)
3. Compare and contrast three leadership approaches
Focus on the question
Remember that there are two elements to this question. You must therefore ensure you give sufficient attention to both elements of the question in order to pass.
“Since the early 20th century, there have been many strands of research that explore what effective leadership is. Compare and contrast the following three leadership approaches/theories”
o Trait approach
(Remember there are many people who have researched leadership traits which you can draw on)
o Situational leadership theory
(Remember the essay is asking you to concentrate on situational leadership theory (Blanchard et al. 1985) specifically here and not other situational/contingency based models)
Blanchard, Kenneth H., Patricia Zigarmi, and Drea Zigarmi 1985. “Leadership and the one minute manager: Increasing effectiveness through situational leadership.” New York: Morrow, Print
For example, when describing situational leadership theory, avoid describing D1, D2, D3, D4 and then S1, S2, S3, and S4 in detail. Instead, consider providing the model detail in the appendix and provide a summary of what the model explores in the essay itself.
o Transformational leadership theory
(Bass and Avolio’s (1990; 1994) transformational leadership theory is the main theory to explore although there are others you could also include in the discussion e.g. Burns (1978))
Bass, B.M, 1990. From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision, Organizational Dynamics, 19-31
Burns, J.M. 1978, Leadership. New York. Harper&Row, Onursal Arkan
You can also then provide some ‘depth’ in your discussion by providing examples which focus on particular aspects of the model – this is a good way to show understanding and enables you to explore their usefulness and applicability in some depth. For example, you could explore one of the 4I’s in transformational leadership and how this compares to ideas in other theories/approaches.
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