Assignment (2000 words +/- 10%)
You are expected to cite academic and professional papers in your assignment. Of these citations, at least 5 references must be peer reviewed journal articles.
Harvard Referencing Style
This chapter explains some of the more common applications of the author–date (Harvard)
style of referencing. It is based on the Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th
edn, 2002, pp. 188–208 and pp. 218–32.
You should always check your unit guide and/or with academic staff (unit chair,
lecturer or tutor) to make sure that this is the recommended style for your unit. Note
that some units, courses and disciplines use variations of the style described here.
You must reference all material you use from all sources and acknowledge your sources
in the body of your paper each time you use a fact, a conclusion, an idea or a finding
from someone’s work. This establishes the authority of your work and acknowledges the
researchers and writers you have drawn upon in your paper.
It is necessary to cite your sources each time you:
• reproduce an author’s exact words (quote); that is, copy word for word directly from a
text. Page numbers must be included in the in-text citation when quoting directly.
• use your own wording (summarize or paraphrase) to explain or discuss what someone
has said. Page numbers should be provided if the summarized or paraphrased material
appears in specific pages or sections of a work.
If you copy an entire table, chart, diagram or graph or if you take only some of the data
contained in such sources, you must provide a reference.
Sources such as journals, books, encyclopedias, computer programs and software,
information from the internet, reports, newspapers, interviews, radio and television must be
cited in the body of your paper and detailed in a reference list at the end. Information from
Deakin study guides and readers must also be acknowledged.
The author–date (Harvard) style consists of two elements:
1. in-text citations in the body of the paper
2. a reference list at the end of the paper giving full bibliographic details for the in-text
Part 1 of this chapter deals with in-text citations. It gives examples of a range of common
types of sources that you are likely to use in your assignments. Part 2 shows how to present
reference list entries for in-text citations.
Part 1: In-text citations
In your paper, every time you summarize, paraphrase or quote from a source you need to
provide an in-text citation.
The in-text citation consists of the family name of the author/s, the year of publication
and sometimes a page number. Page numbers must be included in the in-text citation
when quoting directly. Page numbers should be provided if the summarized or paraphrased
material appears in specific pages or sections of a work.
Burdess (2007, p. 17) describes students in a university tutorial as workers, empty vessels, trappists or drones.
When citing more than one source within the same parentheses, list the sources
alphabetically by author and separate each with a semicolon.
Good communication is an essential skill in the workplace (Jones 2009; Tomkins 2007; Vickers 2011).
One, two or three authors
The family name of the author/s and date can be in parentheses, or the family name of the
author/s and date can be included as part of the sentence.
Reading widely is the best way to improve vocabulary (Hay, Bochner & Dungey 1997, p. 110).
Hay, Bochner and Dungey (1997, p. 110) explain that reading is the best way to improve vocabulary.
The word ‘and’ is used when the family names are part of the sentence, but an ampersand
(&) is used when the names are in parentheses.
If a work is written by two or three authors the in-text citation provides the family names of
the authors in the order in which they appear on the title page of the work.
More than three authors
If a work has more than three authors use only the family name of the first-listed author
followed by the expression ‘et al.’ (meaning ‘and others’).
Osland et al. (2004, p. 103) expand on the importance of paragraphs and …
The importance of paragraphs should not be underestimated (Osland et al. 2004, p. 103).
Note: In the reference list entry provide the names of all the authors in the order in which
they appear on the title page of the work.
Repeat citations of a study within one paragraph
In any one paragraph, if you cite an author or authors more than once in the narrative (i.e.
the author’s name does not appear in parentheses), include the family name/s and year the
first time. In subsequent citations in the narrative in the same paragraph you need to cite
only the family name/s and omit the year, provided studies cannot be confused.
According to Hopkins (2004, p. 16) little attention has been given to the way a manager might identify and …
Furthermore, Hopkins argues that in some business environments …
When the name of the author/s and year are in parentheses in any one paragraph, the
year is included in subsequent citations.
Little attention has been given to the way a manager might identify and … (Hopkins 2004, p. 16). Furthermore,
Hopkins (2004, p. 16) argues that in some business environments …
When one author (secondary) cites another (primary), provide both primary and secondary
authors’ family names in the in-text citation.
Donato (cited in Cotterall & Cohen 2003, p. 158) explains the concept of scaffolding, which supports learners
as they extend their competence and skills.
In the example above you have read Cotterall and Cohen, who refer to Donato, but you have
not read Donato yourself.
Note: In the reference list provide details of the source you have read, i.e. Cotterall and Cohen.
Chapter or article in an edited book
In a book that consists of chapters or articles written by different authors, acknowledge the
author of the chapter or article used.
In the next example, Watts has written a chapter in a book edited by Becker, Watts and Becker.
Watts (2006, p. 152) claims that writing and reading …
Note: The entry in the reference list should appear under the name of the author of the chapter.
Group or organization as author
Sometimes an author is an organization, a government agency, an association, a corporate
body or the like. Cite the full name of the group the first time and give the abbreviation in
brackets. Use the abbreviation in subsequent references.
According to the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission [HREOC] (1997) children of Aboriginal
Note: In the reference list, give the bibliographic details under the full name of the group or
organization, i.e. Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission. A cross-reference from
the abbreviation to the full name of the organization should also be given.
No author name provided
Works that do not indicate the name of an author are cited in text by title (and year of
publication, plus page number, if appropriate). They are entered in the reference list under
English for academic purposes (1987) provides authentic texts for students to practise study skills for higher
For newspaper articles where no author is indicated, provide details of the newspaper in
text. No entry in the reference list is needed.
Musical director Jonathon Welch has received further recognition by a Melbourne university (The Age,
25 April 2008, p. 11).
No year of publication provided
If no year of publication is given for a source, use ‘n.d.’ (which stands for no date) after the
In a detailed analysis, Cassini (n.d., p. 10) argues …
Two or more publications by the same author in the same year
If an author has published two or more works in the same year, the lower case letters a,b,c
and so forth are used after the date to distinguish between them. Letters are assigned
according to the alphabetical order of the title.
However it has also been noted that … (Perez 2007b, p. 53).
Perez (2007a, p. 22) suggested …
According to Perez (2007c, p. 12) …
Dictionary or encyclopedia
When citing a dictionary provide the information in text only; no entry in the reference list is
The Macquarie dictionary, 4th edn (2005, p. 1104) defines political correctness as …
If the author of an entry in an encyclopedia is not evident then provide the necessary
information in text; no entry in the reference list is needed.
Film, DVD, video, CD-ROM, television and radio programs, podcast,
Films, DVDs, videos, CD-ROMs, television and radio programs, podcasts and YouTube are
referred to by title in text (in italics) with the year of production given.
Communication between characters in Star wars (1977) would indicate that …
When referencing a quote or comment from a film, DVD, video, CD-ROM, television or radio
program, podcast or YouTube, refer to the person by name within your paper and give the
title and year of broadcast either in parentheses or as part of your sentence.
The Prime Minister at the time, Kevin Rudd, commented … (The 7.30 report 2008).
Personal communications can include letters, emails, personal interviews, telephone
conversations and the like. It is important to get the permission of the person referred to in
your assignment and it could be appropriate to indicate the role of the person. Cite personal
communications in text only; they are not included in a reference list.
J Robinson (email, 11 May 2010) indicated…
… (L Frazer, Manager, Heathville Community Centre, interview, 4 June 2009).
Table or chart
If tables or charts are reproduced exactly as they appear in a source then the name of the
author, year and page number must be given.
If you create a table or chart from information provided in a source, acknowledge the source
of the information. For example:
Based on Nguyen 2010, p. 43.
The principles for in-text citation of print sources also apply to electronic sources. All
electronic sources should therefore be cited according to the name of the author/s, which
may be an organisation or a sponsoring body. As for print sources, cite by title if there is
Deakin University unit specific materials
If an article from a journal or a chapter from a book is reproduced in a unit reader with
full original pagination and bibliographic details, you may cite it as you would the original
material and cite the original page numbers.
To cite an article from a journal or a chapter from a book reproduced in a unit reader where
the full original pagination and bibliographic details are not provided, treat the unit reader
as an edited book and cite the articles or chapters reproduced as you would cite chapters in
an edited book, i.e. provide the relevant page numbers of the unit reader.
Before citing material from a study guide you need to confirm from the unit chair that it
is appropriate and acceptable to do so. If it is, then cite as you would cite a chapter in an
Some units advise that it is not acceptable to cite from lecture notes or slides. If you are
permitted to do so, cite the lecturer’s name and year in text. (In the reference list include the
lecturer’s name and the year followed by the title of the lecture, the unit code, the day and
the month plus the campus on which the lecture was delivered.)
A short quote is a sentence or part of a sentence (fewer than about 30 words) from a source,
which is reproduced exactly. Single quotation marks are used at the start and end of the
quote. Author, date and page number for the quote must be given.
It can be argued that ‘good writers are necessarily good readers’ (Hay, Bochner & Dungey 1997, p. 110).
Students experience writer’s block because ‘they have not given sufficient thought to reviewing course content
and developing their ideas’ (Clay 2003, p. 47).
A block quote is a longer quote, more than about 30 words, set off from the body of the
paper by indenting. Quotation marks are not required. Author, date and page number for the
quote must be given.
Morley-Warner (2001) discusses how university students can learn to acquire and convey the appropriate
academic tone in their assignments. She suggests that students should focus on how journal articles in their
subject are written and structured. She describes another benefit of this process:
You will also gain a sense of the complexity of being an apprentice writer in an academic culture, or rather cultures,
where expectations may vary from discipline to discipline, even subject to subject and where you can build a repertoire
of critical thinking and writing skills that enable you to enter the academic debates, even to challenge. (Morley-Warner
2001, p. 6)
Reading is central to study at university. It is through reading that …
Part 2: Reference list
An important purpose of the reference list is to enable readers to locate sources. Therefore
details must be correct and complete. Each in-text citation and the related reference list
entry should be identical in spelling and year.
Points to note:
• The reference list should contain all the works cited in the paper and no works that are
• A work is listed only once in the reference list, regardless of how many times it is cited
• Works should be listed in alphabetical order by family name of author or name of
organization. Numbers and subheadings are not used.
• A work with no author is ordered alphabetically according to the first major word of the
title (disregarding a, an or the at the beginning of the title).
• Full bibliographic details, that is, the key elements of a work, should be provided.
• The state or country should be provided for a relatively unknown place of publication or
Note: The examples given over the following pages have been placed under subheadings to
show each form. In a reference list they would all be together in alphabetical order with no
Author, B year, Title of book, Publisher, City.
Burdess, N 2007, Good study, Pearson Education, Sydney.
Osland, D, Boyd, D, McKenna, W & Salusinszky, I 2004, Writing in Australia: a composition
course for tertiary students, Thomson, Southbank, Vic.
Wallace, A, Schirato, T & Bright, P 1999, Beginning university: thinking, researching and
writing for success, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, NSW.
Work other than a first edition
Author, B year, Title of book, edition number, Publisher, City.
Marshall, L & Rowland, F 2006, A guide to learning independently, 4th edn, Pearson
Education, Frenchs Forest, NSW.
Chapter or article in an edited book
Author, B year, ‘Chapter title’, in C Editor (ed.), Title of book, edition number unless first edition, Publisher, City,
Watts, M 2006, ‘Team term papers and presentations’, in WE Becker, M Watts & SR Becker
(eds), Teaching economics: more alternatives to chalk and talk, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham,
UK, pp. 151–70.
Author, B year, Title of book, Publisher if provided, date retrieved, <URL>.
Taylor, M 2009, Mind maps: quicker notes, better memory, and improved learning,
Kindle edition, retrieved 29 October 2011, <http://www.amazon.com>.
Weaver, RK 2000, Ending welfare as we know it, Brookings Institution Press, retrieved 23
May 2008, <http://books.google.com/books?id=0S8Rezane-QC&printsec=frontcover&sig=zF
Author, B year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, page numbers.
Clay, G 2003, ‘Assignment writing skills’, Nursing Standard, vol. 17, no. 20, pp. 47–52.
Journal article, online
Author, B year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, page numbers if given, doi OR
date retrieved, name of database OR <URL>.
Note: If a digital object identifier (DOI) is provided then it should be given; if no DOI is
available then the name of database or URL should be given. Date of retrieval is not
required if providing a DOI.
Ekwall, A, Gerdtz, M & Manias, E 2008, ‘The influence of patient acuity on satisfaction with
emergency care: perspectives of family, friends and carers’, Journal of Clinical Nursing,
vol. 17, pp. 800–9, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02052.x
Richardson, JS 2004, ‘Content area literacy lessons go high tech’, Reading Online, vol.
8, no. 1, retrieved 1 August 2004, <http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.
Roberts, GE 2004, ‘Municipal government benefits, practices and personnel outcomes:
results from a national survey’, Public Personnel Management, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 1–22,
retrieved 18 July 2004, Business Source Premier database.
Author, B year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, day month, page numbers.
Deveny, C 2008, ‘Dyslexics may take a different route, but we get there in the end’, The Age,
9 April, p. 15.
Crafti, S 2010, ‘Winning design moored in Spain’, The Age, 25 August, Business Day, p. 16.
Note: For newspaper articles where no author is indicated, provide details of the newspaper
in text; no entry in the reference list is needed. For articles from a separately numbered
section of a newspaper, add the section name, enclosed within commas, between the month
and the page number.
Newspaper article, online
Author, B year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, day month, page numbers if given, date retrieved, name of
database OR <URL>.
Moses, A 2010, ’Googling a hire power: should employers use net to vet?’ The Age,
25 August, retrieved 25 August 2010, <http://www.theage.com.au/technology/technologynews/
Priest, A 2007, ‘Expression of the interesting’, The Australian, 10 October, p. 34, retrieved
29 April 2008, Newsbank database.
Author, B year, Title, name of organisation or person responsible for site, date retrieved, <URL>.
The Cancer Council Australia 2007, National cancer prevention policy 2007–09, The
Cancer Council Australia, retrieved 26 August 2010, <http://www.cancer.org.au/File/
Group or organisation as author
Name of group or organisation year, details of the work as appropriate to its form.
Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission 1997, Bringing them home: report of the
National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from
their Families, HREOC, Sydney.
Northern Territory Department of Justice 2007, Step forward: getting help about sexual
violence. Retrieved 25 August 2010, <www.nt.gov.au/justice/documents/stepforward.pdf>.
Author, B year, ‘Title of page’, date retrieved, <URL>.
Diabetes Australia 2010, ‘Gestational diabetes’, retrieved 22 July 2010,
Brochure or pamphlet
Author B, year, Title, type of publication, Publisher, City if provided.
Australian Heart Foundation 1999, Be active every day: physical activity for a healthy heart,
brochure, Australian Heart Foundation.
Film, DVD, video, CD-ROM
Title of program year, type of recording, Producer, City.
Essay writing made easy 1996, video recording, Deakin University Course Development
Centre, Geelong, Vic.
Sunday too far away 1995, motion picture, South Australian Film Corporation, Adelaide.
Television and radio programs
Title of program year, type of recording, Broadcaster, City, day month.
Hindsight 2006, radio program, ABC National Radio, Melbourne, 31 August.
More than enough rope 2008, television program, ABC 1, Sydney, 21 April.
Podcast and YouTube
Title year, type of recording, Producer, day month, date retrieved, <URL>.
Star stuff 2010, podcast, ABC Science, 8 July, retrieved 8 July 2010, <http://www.abc.net.
Swine flu – alarming jump 2009, YouTube, Channel 9 News Melbourne, 16 May, retrieved 4
September 2009, <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sLWfRzgo_4&NR=1>.
To properly evaluate a marketing strategy and the way it performs, it is essential to measure market activity using marketing metrics. Marketing metrics are discussed throughout this unit, many metrics can be found in your textbook. They form an important aspect of marketing reporting; increasingly, the Australian Marketing Institute (A.M.I.) is helping member companies use these metrics. Metrics also form the bases of academic research (see Google Scholar and your textbook for examples), with these research articles reporting results on the use of these metrics. Sadly, despite their importance, marketing metrics are not universally used by marketing organisations.
Your task is to define customer satisfaction and the measures (metrics) associated with customer satisfaction. Discuss the benefits of these measures to organisations. You are required relate your assignment to a personal experience; apply and discuss the marketing metrics on customer satisfaction to this experience. Give this experience a context by choosing a company (Australian or overseas) and suggest how the marketing manager might use the defined measures (metrics) to improve customer satisfaction in their organisation.
You are expected to cite academic and professional papers in your assignment. Of these citations, at least 5 references must be peer reviewed journal articles.
Deakin guide to referencing. (Please use Harvard in the Business Faculty)
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