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nature of HUMINT

Please read Chapter 1 of the manual on the nature of HUMINT.  when you done;identify:

A) the core components of Human Intelligence
B) the process by which intelligence is gathered
C) the range of roles played by Army intelligence personnel
D) the attributes thought necessary for working in HUMINT
E) the limitations associated with HUMINT
1-1
PART ONE
HUMINT Support, Planning, and Management
HUMINT collection activities include three general categories: screening,
interrogation, and debriefing. In some cases these may be distinguished by legal
distinctions between source categories such as between interrogation and
debriefing. In others, the distinction is in the purpose of the questioning. Regardless
of the type of activity, or goal of the collection effort, HUMINT collection operations
must be characterized by effective support, planning, and management.
_________________________________________________________________________
Chapter 1
Introduction
INTELLIGENCE BATTLEFIELD OPERATING SYSTEM
1-1.
The Intelligence battlefield operating system (BOS) is one of seven
operating systems
?
Intelligence, maneuver, fire
support, air defense,
mobility/countermobility/survivability, combat service support (CSS), and
command and control
?
that enable commanders to build, employ, direct, and
sustain combat power. The Intelligence BO
S is a flexible force of Intelligence
personnel, organizations, and equipment. Individually and collectively, these
assets generate knowledge of and products portraying the enemy and the
environmental features required by a command planning, preparing,
executing, and assessing operations. I
nherent within the Intelligence BOS is
the capability to plan, direct, and synchronize intelligence, surveillance, and
reconnaissance (ISR) operations; collect and process information; produce
relevant intelligence; and disseminate in
telligence and critical information in
an understandable and presentable form
to those who need it, when they
need it. As one of the seven disciplin
es of the Intelligence BOS, HUMINT
provides a capability to the supported
commander in achieving information
superiority on the battlefield.
INTELLIGENCE PROCESS
1-2.
Intelligence operations consist of
the functions that constitute the
intelligence process:
plan, prepare, collect, process, produce
, and the
common tasks of
analyze,
disseminate,
and
assess
that occur throughout
the intelligence process. Just as the
activities of the operations process
overlap and recur as circumstances demand, so do the functions of the
intelligence process.  Additionally, th
e analyze, disseminate, and assess tasks
FM 2-22.3 _________________________________________________________________________________
1-2                                                                                                                                            6 September 2006
of the intelligence process occur cont
inuously throughout the intelligence
process. (See Figure 1-1.)

Plan
. This step of the intelligence proc
ess consists of activities that
include assessing the situation, envisioning a desired outcome (also
known as setting the vision), identifying pertinent information and
intelligence requirements, developing
a strategy for ISR operations to
satisfy those requirements, direct
ing intelligence operations, and
synchronizing the ISR effort. The commander’s intent, planning
guidance, and commander’s critical information requirements (CCIRs)
(priority information requirements [PIRs] and friendly force
information requirements [FFIRs]) dr
ive the planning of intelligence
operations. Commanders must involve their supporting staff judge
advocate (SJA) when planning in
telligence operations (especially
HUMINT operations). Planning, managing, and coordinating these
operations are continuous activities
necessary to obtain information
and produce intelligence essential to decisionmaking.

Prepare
. This step includes those staff
and leader activities that take
place upon receiving the operations
plan (OPLAN), operations order
(OPORD), warning order (WARNO), or commander’s intent to improve
the unit’s ability to execute tasks or missions and survive on the
battlefield.

Collect.
Recent ISR doctrine necessita
tes that the entire staff,
especially the G3/S3 and G2/S2, must change their reconnaissance and
surveillance (R&S) mindset to conducting ISR. The staff must carefully
focus ISR on the CCIR but also enable the quick re-tasking of units
and assets as the situation changes. This doctrinal requirement
ensures that the enemy situation, not just our OPLAN, “drives” ISR
operations. Well-developed procedures
and carefully planned flexibility
to support emerging targets, changing requirements, and the need to
support combat assessment are critical. The G3/S3 and G2/S2 play a
critical role in this challenging task
that is sometimes referred to as
“fighting ISR” because it is so staff intensive during planning and
execution (it is an operation within the operation). Elements of all
units on the battlefield obtain information and data about enemy
forces, activities, facilities, and
resources as well as information
concerning the environmental and geographical characteristics of a
particular area.

Process.
This step converts relevant information into a form suitable
for analysis, production, or i
mmediate use by the commander.
Processing also includes sorting
through large amounts of collected
information and intelligence (multidiscipline reports from the unit’s
ISR assets, lateral and higher echelon units and organizations, and
non-MI elements in the battlespace).
Processing identifies and exploits
that information which is pertinent to the commander’s intelligence
requirements and facilitates situational understanding. Examples of
processing include developing film, enhancing imagery, translating a
document from a foreign language, co
nverting electronic data into a
standardized report that can be analyzed by a system operator, and
_________________________________________________________________________________ FM 2-22.3
6 September 2006                                                                                                                                             1-3
correlating dissimilar or jumbled information by assembling like
elements before the informatio
n is forwarded for analysis.

Produce.
In this step, the G2/S2 integrates evaluated, analyzed, and
interpreted information from single
or multiple sources and disciplines
into finished intelligence products
. Like collection operations, the
G2/S2 must ensure the unit’s information processing and intelligence
production are prioritized and sync
hronized to support answering the
collection requirements.
Figure 1-1. Intelligence Process.
1-3.
For more information on the Inte
lligence process, see FM 2-0.
Commander’s
Intent
ANALYZE,
DISSEMINATE,
and ASSESS
are
continuous
functions
ASSESS
is a
continuous
function
Intelligence Process
Operations Process
The Intelligence Process
provides continuous
intelligence i
nput essential
to the Operations Process
The Operations Process
provides guidance and
focus which drives the
Intelligence Process
PROCESS
COLLECT
PREPARE
PRODUCE
PREPARE
PLAN
EXECUTE
PLAN
COMMANDER
Relevant
Information
(which includes
Intelligence)
Facilitates
Situational
Understanding
Commander’s
Intent
Commander’s
Intent
ANALYZE,
DISSEMINATE,
and ASSESS
are
continuous
functions
ASSESS
is a
continuous
function
Intelligence Process
Operations Process
The Intelligence Process
provides continuous
intelligence i
nput essential
to the Operations Process
The Operations Process
provides guidance and
focus which drives the
Intelligence Process
PROCESS
COLLECT
PREPARE
PRODUCE
PREPARE
PLAN
EXECUTE
PLAN
COMMANDER
COMMANDER
Relevant
Information
(which includes
Intelligence)
Facilitates
Situational
Understanding
Relevant
Information
(which includes
Intelligence)
Relevant
Information
(which includes
Intelligence)
Facilitates
Situational
Understanding
Facilitates
Situational
Understanding
FM 2-22.3 _________________________________________________________________________________
1-4                                                                                                                                            6 September 2006
HUMAN INTELLIGENCE
1-4.
HUMINT is the collection of informat
ion by a trained HUMINT collector
(military occupational specialties
[MOSs] 97E, 351Y [formerly 351C], 351M
[formerly 351E], 35E, and 35F), from p
eople and their associated documents
and media sources to identify elements
, intentions, composition, strength,
dispositions, tactics, equipment, perso
nnel, and capabilities. It uses human
sources as a tool and a variety of co
llection methods, both passively and
actively, to gather information to
satisfy the commander’s intelligence
requirements and cross-cue other intelligence disciplines.
1-5.
HUMINT tasks include but are not limited to—

Conducting source operations.

Liaising with host nation (HN)
officials and allied counterparts.

Eliciting information from select sources.

Debriefing US and allied forces
and civilian personnel including
refugees, displaced persons (DPs),
third-country nationals, and local
inhabitants.

Interrogating EPWs and other detainees.

Initially exploiting docume
nts, media, and materiel.
Note.
In accordance with Army regulatory and po
licy guidance, a select set of intelligence
personnel may be trained and certified to conduct certain HUMINT tasks outside of those
which are standard for their primary MOS. Such selection and training will qualify these
personnel to conduct only those specific a
dditional tasks, and will not constitute
qualifications as a HUMINT collector.
HUMINT SOURCE
1-6.
A HUMINT source is
a person from whom information can be obtained.
The source may either possess first-
or second-hand knowledge normally
obtained through sight or hearing. Potential HUMINT sources include
threat, neutral, and friendly military
and civilian personnel. Categories of
HUMINT sources include but are not limited to detainees, refugees, DPs,
local inhabitants, friendly forces, an
d members of foreign governmental and
non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
HUMINT COLLECTOR
1-7.
For the purpose of this manual, a HU
MINT collector is a person who is
specifically trained and certified for, tasked with, and engages in the
collection of information from individu
als (HUMINT sources) for the purpose
of answering intelligence informatio
n requirements. HUMINT collectors
specifically include enlisted personnel in MOS 97E, Warrant Officers (WOs)
in MOS 351M (351E) and MOS 351Y (351C
), commissioned officers in MOS
35E and MOS 35F, select other specia
lly trained MOSs, and their Federal
civilian employee and civilian contractor counterparts. These specially
trained and certified individuals are the
only
personnel authorized to
conduct HUMINT collection operations
, although CI agents also use
HUMINT collection techniques in the
conduct of CI operations. HUMINT
_________________________________________________________________________________ FM 2-22.3
6 September 2006                                                                                                                                             1-5
collection operations must be conducte
d in accordance with applicable law
and policy. Applicable law and policy includ
e US law; the law of war; relevant
international law; relevant direct
ives including DOD Directive 3115.09,
“DOD Intelligence Interrogations, De
tainee Debriefings, and Tactical
Questioning”; DOD Directive 2310.1E, “The
Department of Defense Detainee
Program”; DOD instructions; and militar
y execute orders including FRAGOs.
Additional policies and regulations a
pply to management of contractors
engaged in HUMINT collection. (See Bib
liography for additional references
on contractor management.) HUMINT co
llectors are not to be confused with
CI agents, MOS 97B and WO MOS 351L (351B). CI agents are trained and
certified for, tasked with, and carry out the mission of denying the enemy the
ability to collect information on the ac
tivities and intentions of friendly
forces. Although personnel in 97E an
d 97B MOSs may use similar methods
to carry out their missions, commanders should not use them
interchangeably. See Figure 1-2 for HUMINT and CI functions.
PHASES OF HUMINT COLLECTION
1-8.
Every HUMINT questioning session, regardless of the methodology
used or the type of operation, consists
of five phases. The five phases of
HUMINT collection are planning and pr
eparation, approach, questioning,
termination, and reporting. They
are generally sequential; however,
reporting may occur at any point within the process when critical
information is obtained and the approa
ch techniques used will be reinforced
as required through the questioning and termination phases.
Planning and Preparation
1-9.
During this phase, the HUMINT collec
tor conducts the necessary research
and operational planning in preparation
for a specific collection effort with a
specific source. Chapter 7 discusses this phase in detail.
Approach
1-10.
During the approach phase, the
HUMINT collector establishes the
conditions of control and rapport to gain
the cooperation of the source and to
facilitate information collection. Chapter 8 discusses approach and
termination strategies in detail.
Questioning
1-11.
During the questioning phase,
the HUMINT collector uses an
interrogation, debriefing, or elicitation
methodology to ask a source questions
systematically on relevant topics, co
llect information in response to the
intelligence tasking, and ascertain so
urce veracity. Chapter 9 discusses
questioning techniques in detail. (See
Appendix B for a source and reliability
matrix.)

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